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                          Exceptions

                          Table of Contents

                          PHP has an exception model similar to that of other programming languages. An exception can be thrown, and caught ("catched") within PHP. Code may be surrounded in a try block, to facilitate the catching of potential exceptions. Each try must have at least one corresponding catch or finally block.

                          The thrown object must be an instance of the Exception class or a subclass of Exception. Trying to throw an object that is not will result in a PHP Fatal Error.

                          catch

                          Multiple catch blocks can be used to catch different classes of exceptions. Normal execution (when no exception is thrown within the try block) will continue after that last catch block defined in sequence. Exceptions can be thrown (or re-thrown) within a catch block.

                          When an exception is thrown, code following the statement will not be executed, and PHP will attempt to find the first matching catch block. If an exception is not caught, a PHP Fatal Error will be issued with an "Uncaught Exception ..." message, unless a handler has been defined with set_exception_handler().

                          In PHP 7.1 and later, a catch block may specify multiple exceptions using the pipe (|) character. This is useful for when different exceptions from different class hierarchies are handled the same.

                          finally

                          In PHP 5.5 and later, a finally block may also be specified after or instead of catch blocks. Code within the finally block will always be executed after the try and catch blocks, regardless of whether an exception has been thrown, and before normal execution resumes.

                          Notes

                          Note:

                          Internal PHP functions mainly use Error reporting, only modern Object oriented extensions use exceptions. However, errors can be simply translated to exceptions with ErrorException.

                          Tip

                          The Standard PHP Library (SPL) provides a good number of built-in exceptions.

                          Examples

                          Example #3 Throwing an Exception

                          <?php
                          function inverse($x) {
                              if (!
                          $x) {
                                  throw new 
                          Exception('Division by zero.');
                              }
                              return 
                          1/$x;
                          }

                          try {
                              echo 
                          inverse(5) . "\n";
                              echo 
                          inverse(0) . "\n";
                          } catch (
                          Exception $e) {
                              echo 
                          'Caught exception: ',  $e->getMessage(), "\n";
                          }

                          // Continue execution
                          echo "Hello World\n";
                          ?>

                          The above example will output:

                          0.2
                          Caught exception: Division by zero.
                          Hello World
                          

                          Example #4 Exception handling with a finally block

                          <?php
                          function inverse($x) {
                              if (!
                          $x) {
                                  throw new 
                          Exception('Division by zero.');
                              }
                              return 
                          1/$x;
                          }

                          try {
                              echo 
                          inverse(5) . "\n";
                          } catch (
                          Exception $e) {
                              echo 
                          'Caught exception: ',  $e->getMessage(), "\n";
                          finally {
                              echo 
                          "First finally.\n";
                          }

                          try {
                              echo 
                          inverse(0) . "\n";
                          } catch (
                          Exception $e) {
                              echo 
                          'Caught exception: ',  $e->getMessage(), "\n";
                          finally {
                              echo 
                          "Second finally.\n";
                          }

                          // Continue execution
                          echo "Hello World\n";
                          ?>

                          The above example will output:

                          0.2
                          First finally.
                          Caught exception: Division by zero.
                          Second finally.
                          Hello World
                          

                          Example #5 Nested Exception

                          <?php

                          class MyException extends Exception { }

                          class 
                          Test {
                              public function 
                          testing() {
                                  try {
                                      try {
                                          throw new 
                          MyException('foo!');
                                      } catch (
                          MyException $e) {
                                          
                          // rethrow it
                                          
                          throw $e;
                                      }
                                  } catch (
                          Exception $e) {
                                      
                          var_dump($e->getMessage());
                                  }
                              }
                          }

                          $foo = new Test;
                          $foo->testing();

                          ?>

                          The above example will output:

                          string(4) "foo!"
                          

                          Example #6 Multi catch exception handling

                          <?php

                          class MyException extends Exception { }

                          class 
                          MyOtherException extends Exception { }

                          class 
                          Test {
                              public function 
                          testing() {
                                  try {
                                      throw new 
                          MyException();
                                  } catch (
                          MyException MyOtherException $e) {
                                      
                          var_dump(get_class($e));
                                  }
                              }
                          }

                          $foo = new Test;
                          $foo->testing();

                          ?>

                          The above example will output:

                          string(11) "MyException"
                          
                          add a note add a note

                          User Contributed Notes 30 notes

                          up
                          259
                          zmunoz at gmail dot com
                          9 years ago
                          When catching an exception inside a namespace it is important that you escape to the global space:

                          <?php
                          namespace SomeNamespace;

                          class
                          SomeClass {

                            function
                          SomeFunction() {
                             try {
                              throw new
                          Exception('Some Error Message');
                             } catch (\
                          Exception $e) {
                             
                          var_dump($e->getMessage());
                             }
                            }

                          }
                          ?>
                          up
                          75
                          ohcc at 163 dot com
                          2 years ago
                          If a TRY has a FINALLY, a RETURN either in the TRY or a CATCH won't terminate the script. Code in the same block after the RETURN will not be executed, and the RETURN itself will be "copied" to the bottom of the FINALLY block to be executed.

                          a RETURN in the FINALLY block will override value(s) returned from the TRY or a CATCH block.

                          An EXIT or a DIE always terminate the script after themselves.

                          code 1

                          <?php
                             
                          function foo(){
                                 
                          $bar = 1;
                                  try{
                                      throw new
                          Exception('I am Wu Xiancheng.');
                                  }catch(
                          Exception $e){
                                      return
                          $bar;
                                     
                          $bar--; // this line will be ignored
                                 
                          }finally{
                                     
                          $bar++;
                                  }
                              }
                              echo
                          foo(); // 2
                          ?>

                          code 2

                          <?php
                             
                          function foo(){
                                 
                          $bar = 1;
                                  try{
                                      throw new
                          Exception('I am Wu Xiancheng.');
                                  }catch(
                          Exception $e){
                                      return
                          $bar;
                                     
                          $bar--; // this line will be ignored
                                 
                          }finally{
                                     
                          $bar++;
                                      return
                          $bar;
                                  }
                              }
                              echo
                          foo(); //2
                          ?>

                          code 3

                          <?php
                             
                          function foo(){
                                 
                          $bar = 1;
                                  try{
                                      throw new
                          Exception('I am Wu Xiancheng.');
                                  }catch(
                          Exception $e){
                                      return
                          $bar;
                                     
                          $bar--; // this line will be ignored
                                 
                          }finally{
                                      return
                          100;
                                  }
                              }
                              echo
                          foo(); //100
                          ?>
                          up
                          74
                          ask at nilpo dot com
                          9 years ago
                          If you intend on creating a lot of custom exceptions, you may find this code useful.  I've created an interface and an abstract exception class that ensures that all parts of the built-in Exception class are preserved in child classes.  It also properly pushes all information back to the parent constructor ensuring that nothing is lost.  This allows you to quickly create new exceptions on the fly.  It also overrides the default __toString method with a more thorough one.

                          <?php
                          interface IException
                          {
                             
                          /* Protected methods inherited from Exception class */
                             
                          public function getMessage();                 // Exception message
                             
                          public function getCode();                    // User-defined Exception code
                             
                          public function getFile();                    // Source filename
                             
                          public function getLine();                    // Source line
                             
                          public function getTrace();                   // An array of the backtrace()
                             
                          public function getTraceAsString();           // Formated string of trace
                             
                              /* Overrideable methods inherited from Exception class */
                             
                          public function __toString();                 // formated string for display
                             
                          public function __construct($message = null, $code = 0);
                          }

                          abstract class
                          CustomException extends Exception implements IException
                          {
                              protected
                          $message = 'Unknown exception';     // Exception message
                             
                          private   $string;                            // Unknown
                             
                          protected $code    = 0;                       // User-defined exception code
                             
                          protected $file;                              // Source filename of exception
                             
                          protected $line;                              // Source line of exception
                             
                          private   $trace;                             // Unknown

                             
                          public function __construct($message = null, $code = 0)
                              {
                                  if (!
                          $message) {
                                      throw new
                          $this('Unknown '. get_class($this));
                                  }
                                 
                          parent::__construct($message, $code);
                              }
                             
                              public function
                          __toString()
                              {
                                  return
                          get_class($this) . " '{$this->message}' in {$this->file}({$this->line})\n"
                                                         
                          . "{$this->getTraceAsString()}";
                              }
                          }
                          ?>

                          Now you can create new exceptions in one line:

                          <?php
                          class TestException extends CustomException {}
                          ?>

                          Here's a test that shows that all information is properly preserved throughout the backtrace.

                          <?php
                          function exceptionTest()
                          {
                              try {
                                  throw new
                          TestException();
                              }
                              catch (
                          TestException $e) {
                                  echo
                          "Caught TestException ('{$e->getMessage()}')\n{$e}\n";
                              }
                              catch (
                          Exception $e) {
                                  echo
                          "Caught Exception ('{$e->getMessage()}')\n{$e}\n";
                              }
                          }

                          echo
                          '<pre>' . exceptionTest() . '</pre>';
                          ?>

                          Here's a sample output:

                          Caught TestException ('Unknown TestException')
                          TestException 'Unknown TestException' in C:\xampp\htdocs\CustomException\CustomException.php(31)
                          #0 C:\xampp\htdocs\CustomException\ExceptionTest.php(19): CustomException->__construct()
                          #1 C:\xampp\htdocs\CustomException\ExceptionTest.php(43): exceptionTest()
                          #2 {main}
                          up
                          6
                          christof+php[AT]insypro.com
                          1 year ago
                          In case your E_WARNING type of errors aren't catchable with try/catch you can change them to another type of error like this:

                          <?php
                              set_error_handler
                          (function($errno, $errstr, $errfile, $errline){
                                      if(
                          $errno === E_WARNING){
                                         
                          // make it more serious than a warning so it can be caught
                                         
                          trigger_error($errstr, E_ERROR);
                                          return
                          true;
                                      } else {
                                         
                          // fallback to default php error handler
                                         
                          return false;
                                      }
                              });

                              try {
                                     
                          // code that might result in a E_WARNING
                             
                          } catch(Exception $e){
                                     
                          // code to handle the E_WARNING (it's actually changed to E_ERROR at this point)
                             
                          } finally {
                                     
                          restore_error_handler();
                              }
                          ?>
                          up
                          67
                          Johan
                          8 years ago
                          Custom error handling on entire pages can avoid half rendered pages for the users:

                          <?php
                          ob_start
                          ();
                          try {
                             
                          /*contains all page logic
                              and throws error if needed*/
                             
                          ...
                          } catch (
                          Exception $e) {
                           
                          ob_end_clean();
                           
                          displayErrorPage($e->getMessage());
                          }
                          ?>
                          up
                          15
                          hweidmann at online dot de
                          3 years ago
                          catch doesn't check for the existence of the Exception class, so avoid typo.

                          <?php
                            
                          class MyException extends Exception
                            
                          {
                                ...
                             }

                             try
                             {
                                throw new
                          MyException(...);
                             }
                             catch (
                          MuException $e) // <--- typo
                            
                          {
                                ...
                             }
                          ?>

                          You WON'T get
                             Fatal error: Class MuException could not be loaded ...

                          You WILL get
                             Fatal error: Uncaught exception 'MyException' ...
                          up
                          27
                          php at marcuspope dot com
                          5 years ago
                          Using a return statement inside a finally block will override any other return statement or thrown exception from the try block and all defined catch blocks.   Code execution in the parent stack will continue as if the exception was never thrown. 

                          Frankly this is a good design decision because it means I can optionally dismiss all thrown exceptions from 1 or more catch blocks in one place, without having to nest my whole try block inside an additional (and otherwise needless) try/catch block.

                          This is the same behavior as Java, whereas C# throws a compile time error when a return statement exists inside a finally block.  So I figured it was worth pointing out to PHP devs who may not have any exposure to finally blocks or how other languages do it.

                          <?php

                          function asdf()
                          {
                              try {
                                  throw new
                          Exception('error');
                              }
                              catch(
                          Exception $e) {
                                  echo
                          "An error occurred";
                                  throw
                          $e;
                              }
                              finally {
                                         
                          //This overrides the exception as if it were never thrown
                                 
                          return "\nException erased";
                              }
                          }

                          try {
                              echo
                          asdf();
                          }
                          catch(
                          Exception $e) {
                              echo
                          "\nResult: " . $e->getMessage();
                          }
                          ?>

                          The output from above will look like this:

                              An error occurred
                              Exception erased

                          Without the return statement in the finally block it would look like this:

                              An error occurred
                              Result: error
                          up
                          7
                          ohcc at 163 dot com
                          3 years ago
                          Type declarations will trigger Uncaught TypeError when a different type is passed. And it cannot be caught with the Exception class.
                          <?php
                             
                          function xc(array $a){       
                              }   
                              try{
                                 
                          xc(4);
                              }catch (
                          Exception $e){ // failed to catch it
                                 
                          echo $e->getMessage();
                              }
                          ?>

                          You should use TypeError instead for PHP 7+,

                          <?php
                             
                          function xc(array $a){   
                              }   
                              try{
                                 
                          xc(4);
                              }catch (
                          TypeError $e){
                                  echo
                          $e->getMessage();
                              }
                          ?>

                          In php version prior to 7.0, you should translate Catchable fatal errors to an exception and then catch it.

                          <?php
                             
                          function exceptionErrorHandler($errNumber, $errStr, $errFile, $errLine ) {
                                  throw new
                          ErrorException($errStr, 0, $errNumber, $errFile, $errLine);
                              }
                             
                          set_error_handler('exceptionErrorHandler');
                              function
                          s(array $a){       
                              }
                              try{
                                 
                          s(4);
                              }catch (
                          Exception $e){
                                  echo
                          $e->getMessage();
                              }
                          ?>
                          up
                          17
                          jazfresh at hotmail.com
                          12 years ago
                          Sometimes you want a single catch() to catch multiple types of Exception. In a language like Python, you can specify multiple types in a catch(), but in PHP you can only specify one. This can be annoying when you want handle many different Exceptions with the same catch() block.

                          However, you can replicate the functionality somewhat, because catch(<classname> $var) will match the given <classname> *or any of it's sub-classes*.

                          For example:

                          <?php
                          class DisplayException extends Exception {};
                          class
                          FileException extends Exception {};
                          class
                          AccessControl extends FileException {}; // Sub-class of FileException
                          class IOError extends FileException {}; // Sub-class of FileException

                          try {
                            if(!
                          is_readable($somefile))
                               throw new
                          IOError("File is not readable!");
                            if(!
                          user_has_access_to_file($someuser, $somefile))
                               throw new
                          AccessControl("Permission denied!");
                            if(!
                          display_file($somefile))
                               throw new
                          DisplayException("Couldn't display file!");

                          } catch (
                          FileException $e) {
                           
                          // This block will catch FileException, AccessControl or IOError exceptions, but not Exceptions or DisplayExceptions.
                           
                          echo "File error: ".$e->getMessage();
                            exit(
                          1);
                          }
                          ?>

                          Corollary: If you want to catch *any* exception, no matter what the type, just use "catch(Exception $var)", because all exceptions are sub-classes of the built-in Exception.
                          up
                          12
                          jim at anderos dot com
                          5 years ago
                          If you are using a namespace, you must indicate the global namespace when using Exceptions.
                          <?php
                          namespace alpha;
                          function
                          foo(){
                              throw new \
                          Exception("Something is wrong!");
                             
                          // throw new Exception(""); will fail
                          }

                          try {
                             
                          foo();
                          } catch( \
                          Exception $e ) {
                             
                          // catch( Exception $e ) will give no warning, but will not catch Exception
                             
                          echo "ERROR: $e";
                          }

                          ?>
                          up
                          14
                          Edu
                          5 years ago
                          The "finally" block can change the exception that has been throw by the catch block.

                          <?php
                          try{
                                  try {
                                          throw new \
                          Exception("Hello");
                                  } catch(\
                          Exception $e) {
                                          echo
                          $e->getMessage()." catch in\n";
                                          throw
                          $e;
                                  } finally {
                                          echo
                          $e->getMessage()." finally \n";
                                          throw new \
                          Exception("Bye");
                                  }
                          } catch (\
                          Exception $e) {
                                  echo
                          $e->getMessage()." catch out\n";
                          }
                          ?>

                          The output is:

                          Hello catch in
                          Hello finally
                          Bye catch out
                          up
                          6
                          Simo
                          4 years ago
                          #3 is not a good example. inverse("0a") would not be caught since (bool) "0a" returns true, yet 1/"0a" casts the string to integer zero and attempts to perform the calculation.
                          up
                          9
                          Shot (Piotr Szotkowski)
                          10 years ago
                          ‘Normal execution (when no exception is thrown within the try block, *or when a catch matching the thrown exception’s class is not present*) will continue after that last catch block defined in sequence.’

                          ‘If an exception is not caught, a PHP Fatal Error will be issued with an “Uncaught Exception …” message, unless a handler has been defined with set_exception_handler().’

                          These two sentences seem a bit contradicting about what happens ‘when a catch matching the thrown exception’s class is not present’ (and the second sentence is actually correct).
                          up
                          11
                          sander at rotorsolutions dot nl
                          5 years ago
                          Just an example why finally blocks are usefull (5.5)

                          <?php

                          //without catch
                          function example() {
                            try {
                             
                          //do something that throws an exeption
                           
                          }
                            finally {
                             
                          //this code will be executed even when the exception is executed
                           
                          }
                          }

                          function
                          example2() {
                            try {
                              
                          //open sql connection check user as example
                              
                          if(condition) {
                                  return
                          false;
                               }
                            }
                            finally {
                             
                          //close the sql connection, this will be executed even if the return is called.
                           
                          }
                          }

                          ?>
                          up
                          6
                          telefoontoestel at nospam dot org
                          4 years ago
                          When using finally keep in mind that when a exit/die statement is used in the catch block it will NOT go through the finally block.

                          <?php
                          try {
                              echo
                          "try block<br />";
                              throw new
                          Exception("test");
                          } catch (
                          Exception $ex) {
                              echo
                          "catch block<br />";
                          } finally {
                              echo
                          "finally block<br />";
                          }

                          // try block
                          // catch block
                          // finally block
                          ?>

                          <?php
                          try {
                              echo
                          "try block<br />";
                              throw new
                          Exception("test");
                          } catch (
                          Exception $ex) {
                              echo
                          "catch block<br />";
                              exit(
                          1);
                          } finally {
                              echo
                          "finally block<br />";
                          }

                          // try block
                          // catch block
                          ?>
                          up
                          5
                          cyrus+php at boadway dot ca
                          5 years ago
                          There's some inconsistent behaviour associated with PHP 5.5.3's finally and return statements. If a method returns a variable in a try block (e.g. return $foo;), and finally modifies that variable, the /modified/ value is returned. However, if the try block has a return that has to be evaluated in-line (e.g. return $foo+0;), finally's changes to $foo will /not/ affect the return value.

                          [code]
                          function returnVariable(){
                              $foo = 1;
                              try{
                                  return $foo;
                              } finally {
                                  $foo++;
                              }
                          }

                          function returnVariablePlusZero(){
                              $foo = 1;
                              try{
                                  return $foo + 0;
                              } finally {
                                  $foo++;
                              }
                          }

                          $test1 = returnVariable(); // returns 2, not the correct value of 1.
                          $test2 = returnVariablePlusZero(); // returns correct value of 1, but inconsistent with $test1.
                          [/code]

                          It looks like it's trying to be efficient by not allocating additional memory for the return value when it thinks it doesn't have to, but the spec is that finally is run after try is completed execution, and that includes the evaluation of the return expression.

                          One could argue (weakly) that the first method should be the correct result, but at least the two methods should be consistent.
                          up
                          10
                          michael dot ochs at gmx dot net
                          11 years ago
                          Actually it isn't possible to do:
                          <?php
                          someFunction
                          () OR throw new Exception();
                          ?>

                          This leads to a T_THROW Syntax Error. If you want to use this kind of exceptions, you can do the following:

                          <?php
                          function throwException($message = null,$code = null) {
                              throw new
                          Exception($message,$code);
                          }

                          someFunction() OR throwException();
                          ?>
                          up
                          3
                          Tom Polomsk
                          4 years ago
                          Contrary to the documentation it is possible in PHP 5.5 and higher use only try-finally blocks without any catch block.
                          up
                          2
                          Sawsan
                          7 years ago
                          the following is an example of a re-thrown exception and the using of getPrevious function:

                          <?php

                          $name
                          = "Name";

                          //check if the name contains only letters, and does not contain the word name

                          try
                             {
                             try
                               {
                                if (
                          preg_match('/[^a-z]/i', $name))
                                 {
                                     throw new
                          Exception("$name contains character other than a-z A-Z");
                                 }  
                                 if(
                          strpos(strtolower($name), 'name') !== FALSE)
                                 {
                                    throw new
                          Exception("$name contains the word name");
                                 }
                                 echo
                          "The Name is valid";
                               }
                             catch(
                          Exception $e)
                               {
                               throw new
                          Exception("insert name again",0,$e);
                               }
                             }

                          catch (
                          Exception $e)
                             {
                             if (
                          $e->getPrevious())
                             {
                              echo
                          "The Previous Exception is: ".$e->getPrevious()->getMessage()."<br/>";
                             }
                             echo
                          "The Exception is: ".$e->getMessage()."<br/>";
                             }

                          ?>
                          up
                          2
                          jake at NOSPAM dot qzdesign dot co dot uk
                          1 year ago
                          Don't forget if your source file is in a namespace you will need to
                          <?php
                          use Throwable; // PHP 7
                          use Exception;
                          ?>
                          or type the fully qualified class name (prefixed with `\`) as in
                          <?php
                          try {
                           
                          // ...
                          } catch(\Throwable $e) {
                           
                          // PHP 7
                          } catch(\Exception $e) {
                           
                          // PHP 5
                          }
                          ?>
                          otherwise you will only ever catch exceptions of the possibly non-existent classes `\YourNamespace\Throwable` and `\YourNamespace\Exception`!
                          up
                          0
                          wisetips at gmail dot com
                          6 months ago
                          You should put your whole program into a try/catch block. Doing so is considered a best practice, because it will allow the user to continue to work even when there are errors in the page!
                          up
                          0
                          mlaopane at gmail dot com
                          1 year ago
                          <?php

                          /**
                          * You can catch exceptions thrown in a deep level function
                          */

                          function employee()
                          {
                              throw new \
                          Exception("I am just an employee !");
                          }

                          function
                          manager()
                          {
                             
                          employee();
                          }

                          function
                          boss()
                          {
                              try {
                                 
                          manager();
                              } catch (\
                          Exception $e) {
                                  echo
                          $e->getMessage();
                              }
                          }

                          boss(); // output: "I am just an employee !"
                          up
                          0
                          sander at rotorsolutions dot nl
                          5 years ago
                          Just an example why finally blocks are usefull (5.5)

                          <?php

                          //without catch
                          function example() {
                            try {
                             
                          //do something that throws an exeption
                           
                          }
                            finally {
                             
                          //this code will be executed even when the exception is executed
                           
                          }
                          }

                          function
                          example2() {
                            try {
                              
                          //open sql connection check user as example
                              
                          if(condition) {
                                  return
                          false;
                               }
                            }
                            finally {
                             
                          //close the sql connection, this will be executed even if the return is called.
                           
                          }
                          }
                          up
                          0
                          jon at hackcraft dot net
                          12 years ago
                          Further to dexen at google dot me dot up with "use destructors to perform a cleanup in case of exception". The fact that PHP5 has destructors, exception handling, and predictable garbage collection (if there's a single reference in scope and the scope is left then the destructor is called immediately) allows for the use of the RAII idiom.

                          http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resource_Acquisition_Is_Initialization and my own http://www.hackcraft.net/RAII/ describe this.
                          up
                          -2
                          Mohammad Hossein Darvishanpour
                          3 years ago
                          <?php
                          function Test_Extention($var1)
                          {
                              if(
                          $var1 == false)
                              {
                                  throw new
                          Exception('Invalid !');
                              }
                          }
                          //end function

                          try
                          {
                             
                          Test_Extention(false);
                             
                          printf("%s","Valid");
                          }

                          catch(
                          Exception $e)
                          {
                             
                          printf("%s","Message : " . $e->getMessage());
                          }
                          ?>
                          up
                          -3
                          fjoggen at gmail dot com
                          13 years ago
                          This code will turn php errors into exceptions:

                          <?php
                          function exceptions_error_handler($severity, $message, $filename, $lineno) {
                              throw new
                          ErrorException($message, 0, $severity, $filename, $lineno);
                          }

                          set_error_handler('exceptions_error_handler');
                          ?>

                          However since <?php set_error_handler()?> doesn't work with fatal errors, you will not be able to throw them as Exceptions.
                          up
                          -6
                          alex dowgailenko [at] g mail . com
                          7 years ago
                          If you use the set_error_handler() to throw exceptions of errors, you may encounter issues with __autoload() functionality saying that your class doesn't exist and that's it.

                          If you do this:

                          <?php

                          class MyException extends Exception
                          {
                          }

                          class
                          Tester
                          {
                              public function
                          foobar()
                              {
                                  try
                                  {
                                     
                          $this->helloWorld();
                                  } catch (
                          MyException $e) {
                                      throw new
                          Exception('Problem in foobar',0,$e);
                                  }
                              }
                             
                              protected function
                          helloWorld()
                              {
                                  throw new
                          MyException('Problem in helloWorld()');
                              }
                          }

                          $tester = new Tester;
                          try
                          {
                             
                          $tester->foobar();
                          } catch (
                          Exception $e) {
                              echo
                          $e->getTraceAsString();
                          }
                          ?>

                          The trace will only show $tester->foobar() and not the call made to $tester->helloWorld().

                          In other words, if you pass a previous exception to a new one, the previous exception's stack trace is taken into account in the new exception.
                          up
                          -8
                          Hayley Watson
                          4 years ago
                          Remember that Exceptions are also objects and can be handled as such; they can be constructed in and returned as values from functions, passed as arguments to other functions, and examined before being thrown. You don't have to throw it as soon as you have constructed it (the stack trace will of course reflect the moment the Exception was constructed, not the moment it was thrown).

                          You might, for example, want to collect additional information to include in YourException but you don't want to clutter up the YourException class or the code containing the "throw" statement by collecting the information there. Or you might want to do something (such as logging) with each Exception that is thrown from a certain region (catch it, pass it to the logging function, then rethrow it).
                          up
                          -1
                          daviddlowe dot flimm at gmail dot com
                          1 year ago
                          Starting in PHP 7, the classes Exception and Error both implement the Throwable interface. This means, if you want to catch both Error instances and Exception instances, you should catch Throwable objects, like this:

                          <?php

                          try {
                              throw new
                          Error( "foobar" );
                             
                          // or:
                              // throw new Exception( "foobar" );
                          }
                          catch (
                          Throwable $e) {
                             
                          var_export( $e );
                          }

                          ?>
                          up
                          -6
                          jenshausdorf at gmail dot com
                          1 year ago
                          Please don't do something like this:

                          <?php
                          try {
                             
                          // experimental stuff to check whether something works
                          } catch(\Throwable $e) {
                              return
                          false;
                          } finally {
                              return
                          true;
                          }
                          ?>

                          Well, it is allowed syntax, it is bad practice, because once it hits the exception block, finally won't be called(because it exits the scope). Finally was invented to prevent duplicated code after one operation, regardless whether it was successful(for example closing the connection to a server). This way, you don't have any duplicated code. So you don't need to use this structure.
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